راهنماي گردشگري خوزستان
راهنمای تخصصی گردشگری و خود راننده،گشت های اختصاصی،نقشه خوزستان،جشنواره های محلی و اطلاعات راه ها
طی حکمی از سوی مدیرکل میراث فرهنگی خوزستان، در روز جهانی گردشگری (۵ مهر)، سعید دیناروند به عنوان مدیر جدید اداره میراث ‌فرهنگی شوش منصوب شد.

این درحالی است که پیش از این، رضا چنانی، به مدت 9 سال مدیریت اداره میراث‌فرهنگی شوش را بر عهده داشت.

سعید دیناروند، کارشناس زنده میراث فرهنگی شوش، مدرس دانشگاه، راهنمای گردشگری و دانشجوی دکترای تاریخ ایران باستان است.

انتظار می رود آقای دیناروند که خود از بدنه میراث فرهنگی است، با تدبیر و تعاملی خردمندانه و با مشارکت جمیع فعالین گردشگری، گامی مهم در ثبت جهانی شوش، حفاظت از میراث فرهنگی خوزستان و همچنین رونق گردشگری بردارند.

اینجانب به نوبه خود، حضور ایشان را در رأس مسوولیت خطیر میراث فرهنگی شوش تبریک عرض نموده و برای ایشان و همه همکاران دلسوزشان، آرزوی سلامتی و توفیق روز افزون خواهانم.

موضوع مطلب : خبر
نگارنده: مهران شهرستانی |

Ancient city of Susa 

شوش ، قدیمی ترین شهر جهان


Susa
 
 
شوش


By pouya monsefi


City of SUSA , The Oldest City on the World's

شهر باستانی شوش ، در استان خوزستان ، کهن ترین زیستگاه بشر و 

 یکی از اولین نقاط شهر نشینی انسان در جهان است

Ancient city of Susa, the world's oldest human habitats and

one of the first human space urbanization

in south western Iran

"Susa, the ancient Persian word meaning is "Good

The one of very old civilization which has ever lived in world was The SUSA Civilization

۸۰۰۰years ago, there was a civilization which lived in today's Khoozestan, their name was "Shoosh Civilization," or in English "Susa Civilization." So far this has been reported as the oldest civilization which have ever existed on Earth. By civilization, we mean civilized city government or city state or Empire or Kingdom or any type of local civilized system. The ancient city of Susa is mentioned in Old Testament as the place where prophet Daniel lived. The city name is derived from Shashana, a member of water lily family of flowers, believed to grow in lakes and swamps outside this biblical city in ancient times.
Susa was the capital of a ancient kingdom know is old Elam city. A kingdom built and ruled by Dravidian people who ruled it from second millennium BCE until late mid-first millennium BCE. Elamite kingdom was destroyed by attacks from Babylonians. Elamite influence spread throughout the southern regions of Iran by their cuneiform writing system, and rock inscriptions. After that Cyrus the Great founded his empire and gained control over Susa. Susa was declared as one of the three capitals of the empire covering the southern regions. When Darius established his rule over the empire, he set out to built the palace of Persepolis in his home state, and later an equally magnificent palace in his favorite city of Susa. It is said that the carving style and shapes of the columns in Susa are similar to Persepolis buildings. The fluted shaped column with flowers at pillars are truly an Achaemenian style in ancient palace buildings. Today we can visit the ruins of this palace built on a hilltop overlooking the modern city of Susa

This style was later used in ancient palaces as far as northern India all the way to Ionian Greece.
Till the beginning of the control by the moslems, Shoosh continued to thrive. In the year 1898 AD, the famous castle of Shoosh was constructed by "Morgan" on the northern part of the Acropol hill. The ancient name of Shoosh was 'Soos' or 'Dasht-e-Soosiana', and later on was changed to Shoosh. The tomb of Profet Daniel is also located in Shooshtar and it can be seen on the western side of the palace hill.
One of the most beuatiful castles in Shooshtar is the Acropol or Shoosh castle which was constructed by a group of French archeologists in the year 1897 AD in the highest region of the city. The design is very similar to the Bastille in France. This castle has been constructed by Dezful artists and by means of bricks obtained from Darius (Dariush) castle and some engraved bricks in the Kific script from Choqazanbil. Valuable and important relics such as the famous statue of Queen Napirasustoon, Hamurabi Code and famed buff earthenware glass of Shoosh with a wild goat drawing have been discovered from the Acropol Hill. It took a period of 15 years to build this structure which stood as a defense fort against the attack of local clans and tribes.


Susa (Sousa) is an ancient city that one hundred and fifty kilometers East of the Tigris River in Khuzestan Province during the Elamite Empire, Achaemenid and Ashkani is located. Susa, one of the oldest known settlements in the world, probably in 4000 BC were established, although one of the first residential village in

about 8000 BC are Land of Elam at the time of great king of ancient people called this "maybe she Gal" politician and his wife "Queen Napyrasva" wonderful land that was important was divided into several sections.

. 1Regional and city palaces of Susa. 2. Chgharnbyl area sacred pilgrimage and the great temple that I maybe scabies powerful king to the god of Susa Elam (Ein Shvynak) was presented and currently one of the oldest temples of ancient world. 3. City "doran tash" that besides the holy city was located "choga zanbil" .4 Dam

and town water supply system. 5. Cemetery and the old city of (haft tape ) seven hills.
Elamite king reigned for 100 years in their knowledge and patents issued to the world. Until the great Achaemenid empire was on the job and the city of Susa again became the largest city in Iran Abad.
By : pooya monsefi




Chogha Zanbil
 
One of the world's oldest temple Pyramid

Chogha Zanbil is considered to be the largest man made structure in Iran. Its size and splendor were both intended to manifest the power of King Untash Napirisha. The ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil is the best surviving example of the Elamite architecture in the world and is registered with UNESCO. However, it was unfortunately lost to the world for approximately 2500 years, until it was accidentally discovered in 1935.


The well-preserved ziggurat was built at Dur Untashi, a city near Shush (Susa), by Untash-gal, Kind of Elam, 1250 BC. It served as both a temple and a tomb, comprised of five towers of varying heights, each uniquely constructed inside the other. It is believed to be the largest ziggurat discovered in the region of Iran and Mesopotamia with a base of 105 meters square. It is part of a complex system that includes an outer wall 1200 x 800 meters, which is constructed around a sacred enclosure approximately 400 meters square. The enclosure held three temples, paved courtyards and storehouses. Moreover, remains of three Elamite Palaces have been found nearby, one of which has subterranean tombs.

The building materials in Chogha Zanbil are comprised mainly of mud bricks and baked bricks. The monuments were well built and beautifully decorated with glazed baked bricks, gypsum, ornaments of faience and glass. Thousands of baked bricks bearing inscriptions with Elamite characters were all inscribed by hand, ornamenting the most important buildings. Glazed terracotta statutes such as bulls and winged griffins guarded
the entrances to the Ziggurat.



Chogha Zanbil ,Built by king Untaš-Napiriša (1275-1240) and named after him (Dur Untaš, "city of Untaš-Napiriša"), it measures 105x105 meters and was probably 52 meters high. It was to be the center of a new town, which was to become the king's residence, but was never quite finished. Still, the town survived its builder with more than two centuries, and there must have been people living in Dur Untaš well after 1000, because the Assyrian king Aššurbanipal was to claim in 646 BCE that he had destroyed the town, which
suggests that there must have been something to destroy




Part of facility from chogha zanbil
 
Four thousand years Dams in Iran
.
The town measured about one square kilometer and was surrounded by a four kilometer wall It was built on high ground, more than fifty meter above the nearby rive Eulaeus (Dez), which made it difficult to bring water to the city. The solution Untaš-Napiriša found, betrays his ambitions: he ordered his people to build a canal to Susa, where fresh water was diverted from the Choaspes river (Karkheh). It passed along Haft Tepe, was diverted into nine branches, and finally reached the town


Unfortunately, the water of the Karkheh is full of mud and, because it was downstream from Susa, not very healthy. So it was necessary to clean it before it could be used in Dur Untaš. Therefore, refineries were built in which the water was conducted through several basins. Even by today's standards, this is a remarkable piece of engineering. The refinery that has been excavated, is the is oldest one known monument of this type in the world

Susa (Shoosh)

The township of Shoosh is located to the northwest of the province, and has common borders with the Ilam province. Its center is the city of Shoosh which is at a distance of 1,010 km. from Tehran. It experiences a hot climate. Susa is considered to be one of the oldest centers of civilization throughout the globe. In archeological excavations, relics related to the pre-historic era have been discovered here. The Elamites were the first clans who were responsible for its flourishment.
During this reign Susa was proclaimed as a capital. Even after the Achaemenians gained control over Susa, the latter sustained its splendor and was selected as the winter capital by Dariush the Achaemenide. Till the beginning of the control by the moslems, Shoosh continued to thrive. In the year 1898 AD, the famous castle of Shoosh was constructed by "Morgan" on the northern part of the Acropol hill. The ancient name of Shoosh was 'Soos' or 'Dasht-e-Soosiana', and later on was changed to Shoosh.

Danial-e-Nabi Mausoleum, Shoosh:

The same is located on the eastern banks of the Shaoor River. This mausoleum is the resting abode of one of the prophets of the Israelites. The premises has two courtyards, which are surrounded with chambers and porches. The mausoleum is located at the end of the second courtyard, which has rooms in three side of courtyard for a nights stay of pilgrims.
In this mausoleum, the sepulchre below the tomb is an old yellow colored stone devoid of any inscriptions. The ceiling of the mausoleum has beautiful mirror works with light apertures on eight sides under the dome. The foundations of the mausoleum are old but thick and strong. The upper section of eastern side of mausoleum is adorned with tile works. The dome of Danial-e-Nabi is a multi-sided, hexagonal in shape erected on a circular base.

 

Acropol (Shoosh) Castle, Shoosh:

The Acropol or Shoosh castle was constructed by a group of French archeologists in the year 1897 AD in the highest region of the city. The same is very similar to the Bastille in France. This castle has been constructed by Dezful artists and by means of bricks obtained from Darius (Dariush) castle and some engraved bricks in the Kific script from Choqazanbil. This castle was in the hands of the French authorities before the Islamic revolution, after which it was utilised as the archeological center of Shoosh.
Valuable and important relics such as the famous statue of Queen Napirasustoon, Hamurabi Code and famed buff earthenware glass of Shoosh with a wild goat drawing have been discovered from the Acropol Hill. It took a period of 15 years to build this structure which stood as a defense fort against the attack of local clans and tribes. During Iran-Iraq war this castle was under the bombardment of Iraqi troops, and later on came under re-construction and repair.

قلعه فرانسوی ها شوش

 

Apadana (Dariush) Palace, Shoosh:

This palace was constructed by the order of Darius (Dariush) the Achaemenian on the top of Elamite hillocks and is knwon as Dariush (Apadana) palace. The walls of the palace are made of sun baked bricks with a brick worked facade, and the pillars are of stone. Apadana Palace consists of a pavillion, haramsara (a section for court ladies), gateway, entertainment hall and three central courtyards. The internal walls of the palace are adorned with engraved glazed bricks depicting the winged-lion guard solidiers and adorned by lotus flowers, the remnants of which are on display in local museums and those in abroad. A major portion of this palace caught on fire during the reign of Ardeshir I, (461 BC), and finally during the conquests of Alexander, the said palace along with other Achaemenian palaces were completely ruined.


shush- apadana palace

Shaoor (Ardeshir) Palace, Shoosh:

The remnants of this palace is situated along the western banks of the Shaoor River, opposite the mausoleum of the Prophet Danial (PBUH). This palace has a square shaped hall with lateral installations. The columns or pillars are made of stone, and its walls are of sun baked bricks. This palace was constructed during the reign of Ardeshir II , and was used as his residential palace as well as a seat of power.

Shoosh Hills (Shahr-e-Shahi), Shoosh:

The eastern vicinity of the Shoosh hillocks are known as Shahr-e-Shahi. Numerous relics have been discovered here, relative to the Elamite, Achaemenian, Parthian and Sassanide periods. Besides which the remnants of roads, passages and dwellings have also been discovered here. The discovered relics, instruments, tools and skulls reveals that the native inhabitants of this territory before migration of the Aryans had been scattered and dwelled in southern and central territories of Iran and established the Elamite rules and governments. The method of constructions, burial of dead bodies, placing a stove in the center of room,etc., are examples of general life-style and other rituals of these people.

Shoosh Museum:

The Shoosh Museum is situated amidst a garden near the ancient Shoosh Castle, and opposite the Danial-e-Nabi Mausoleum. The construction of this museum coincided with the excavations at Shoosh. Thereby the bricks discovered there and in Choqazanbil were utilized in construction of this building. Some other part have been also added to the museum in the following years. The museum was inaugurated in the year 1966 and displays remnants from the pre-Elamite to the Islamic period. The Shoosh Museum has six exhibition halls in which all the vestiges discovered during excavations made in Shoosh and Choqazanbil are on display.




موزه شوش Susa Museum


Choqazanbil Temple (Ziggurat), Shoosh:

Choqazanbil is situated at a distance of 35 km. south east of Shoosh, and is the only remnant of an ancient city, that was constructed approximately in 1250 BC. This city which was at the vicinity of 1 km. from Dez river, was known as "Ontash gal". The same is a reminder of the new Elamite civilization. It was surrounded by three interconnected sun brick made ramparts with the main entrance situated in the eastern side of the largest rampart.The palaces and tombs of the Elamite monarchs are situated between the first and second ramparts. Between the second and the third ramparts, the remnants of the water supply and purification system for city is observed. The water purification system of Choqazanbil was to provide drinking water for citizens which is obviously accounted as one of the most ancient water supply systems. In the center of the third rampart, the main temple (Ziggurat) is placed. This square shaped structure is constructed at the dimensions of 105*105 sq.m., along four main directions.This temple was constructed by means of millions of bricks, in five floors. At present only two floors have been remained. Except for the first and fifth floors, the rest have been filled with sun baked bricks. The fifth floor which is considered to be the most highest one, was used to be the place where idols were kept., The main idol was called "Inshushinak" which was considered to be the most famous deity of Shoosh city. On the brick walls of the temple, same inscriptions designating the name of the king in the Cuneiform script can be observed which reveals the aim of the monarch in the construction of this temple. Near the temple, on the main ground there are two circular platforms. Some believe this to be a place where sacrifices were carried out, and the other version is that, this was an area for astrology.The aggregate of this city along with Elamite civilisation in the vicinity of Haft Tappeh, was demolished in 640 BC as a result of Assyrian conquests, under the command of 'Ashour Banipal', thence terminating the Elamite jurisdiction after a period of more than a millennium.

Choghazanbil Ziggurat ( religious structure built about1250 BC )

 

The world's oldest water treatment in chogha zanbil

موضوع مطلب : جاذبه هاي ديدني شوش
نگارنده: مهران شهرستانی |

گوزن زرد ایرانی از جمله پستانداران نادری است كه زیستگاه اصلی آن طبیعت اطراف شهر دزفول است كه به تازگی احیا شده و از خطر انقراض نجات یافته است. رود دز يكي از مهمترین رودخانه‌های استان خوزستان كه دارای انشعابات فراواني است و شاخه‌ اصلی آن از كنار زيگورات چغازنبیل (اثر جهاني ثبت شده) می‌گذرد.
در اطراف این رود، جنگلی نیمه‌گرمسیری وجود دارد که جنگل دز نامیده می‌شود. در حدود 45 كیلومتری چغازنبیل، رود دیگری جریان دارد كه رود كرخه نام دارد. رود كرخه هم مانند رود دز، توسط جنگلی احاطه شده كه جنگل كرخه نام دارد.
هر دو جنگل دز و كرخه با دارا بودن تنوع جانوری و گیاهی نسبتاً بالا از مهمترین مناطق جنگلی ایران به شمار می‌روند.

گمان می رفت گوزن زرد ایرانی به كلی منقرض شده است اما در سال ۱۳۳۴ خورشيدي معلوم شد تعدادی از آنها در جنگل های اطراف رودخانه دز و كرخه باقی مانده اند.

در سال ۱۳۳۷ دو رأس از آنها به باغ وحش اپل آلمان و در سال ۱۳۴۲ تعداد شش رأس به دشت ناز ساری منتقل شد. پس از آن كه گوزن ها تكثیر شدند به مناطق مختلفی نظیر شمشكنده مازندران، جزیره اشك و كبودان در دریاچه ارومیه، زردلان كرمانشاه، جزایر كیش و لاوان و منطقه میان كتل فارس منتقل شدند.

گوزن زرد ایرانی عموماً شبگرد است و صبح زود و اوایل غروب فعالیت بیشتری دارد. به صورت اجتماعی زندگی می‌کند. معمولاً ماده‌ها، بچه‌ها و نرهای نابالغ در گروه‌هایی جدا از دستهٔ نرهای مسن مشاهده می‌شوند. گوزن زرد در محیط‌های طبیعی بسیار محتاط است و به مجرد احساس خطر با خیز‌های بلند فرار می‌کند. گاهی نیز در میان بوته‌ها و درختان مخفی می‌شود. در تابستان به واسطهٔ پوشش خال‌خالی، توانایی استتار خوبی دارد. در زمستان پوشش او تیره‌تر می‌شود.

نرها شاخ‌های بلند و نسبتاً پهنی دارند. رشد شاخ‌ها از یک سالگی به بعد شروع می‌شود، ولی شاخک‌ها از دو سالگی ظاهر می‌گردد. در اواخر فصل زمستان شاخ‌ها می‌افتند و شاخ‌های جدید بلافاصله شروع به رشد می‌کنند و در تابستان تکمیل می‌شوند. موها در فصل تابستان کوتاه است. رنگ پشت و پهلوها در این فصل، زرد متمایل به قرمز و زیر بدن و دم، سفید است. در قسمت پشت و پهلوها، خال‌های سفید مشخصی دارد. در زمستان، موها بلندتر و به رنگ خاکستری با خال‌های نامشخص است.

گوزن‌های زرد ایرانی اغلب در اوایل پاییز جفت گيري می‌کنند که در این فصل، گوزن نر از ظاهر بسیار زیبا و با ابهتی برخوردار می‌شود. در این فصل، گردن نرها متورم مي شود و بین نرها جدال‌هایی در می‌گیرد. نرها با صدایی که شبیه خرناسهٔ انسان است قلمرو خود را مشخص می‌کنند. مدت آبستنی حدود هشت ماه است. یک و به ندرت دو بچه می‌زاید. وزن بچه‌ها در موقع تولد حدود چهار تا پنج کیلوگرم است. بچه‌ها پس از تولد قادر به راه رفتن و دویدن هستند، ولی مادر در چند روز اول، آن‌ها را در بین علف‌های بلند مخفی می‌کند. بچه‌ها به علت هم‌رنگی با محیط، نداشتن بو و بی تحرکی، از دید حیوانات طعمه‌گیر مخفی می‌مانند. در یک و نیم سالگی بالغ می‌شوند. طول عمر آن‌ها حدود ۱۶ سال است. در این فصل، بین نرها جدال‌هایی در می‌گیرد. گوزن‌های نر قوی‌تر با جذب چندین ماده قلمرو معینی برای خود ایجاد کرده و اجازهٔ ورود را به گوزن‌های نر دیگر نمی‌دهد. اغلب در فصل جفت گیری بین گوزن‌های نر بر سر جفت‌گیری درگیری‌های شدیدی رخ می‌دهد و گوزن بازنده بایستی قلمرو را به نفع برنده ترک کند و به دنبال قلمرو جدیدی باشد. در فصل جفت‌گیری، رفته رفته گوزن نر لاغرتر و نحیف‌تر می‌شود.

تغذیه گوزن‌ها بیشتر از علف‌ها و شاخ و برگ گیاهان می‌باشد، گاهی اوقات نیز از سرشاخه‌های درختان یا از پوست ساقه آن‌ها استفاده می‌کنند. گوزن‌های زرد ایرانی اغلب اوایل صبح قبل از طلوع آفتاب یا عصر به چرا می‌پردازند و بقیهٔ روز را به نشخوار کردن یا استراحت می‌گذرانند.

موضوع مطلب : جاذبه هاي ديدني شوش
نگارنده: مهران شهرستانی |